1.2 Assessment for Learning
Assessment for Learning (AfL), called Formative Assessment founded on research led by Paul Black and Dylan Wiliam, professors at Kings College. Their study is entitled Inside the Black Box (1998). The “Black Box” representationally symbolizes the classroom where the learning process takes place involving interactively both teachers and students. Teachers go on involving students in the learning process. The better teacher and students collaboration is, the better results can be achieved. Black and Wiliam concentrated on classroom relations and effects, concerns of teachers’ day to day relationship with students. AfL means all the activities doing in the classroom, which make available information how to go on teaching and learning.
There is a variety of ways to motivate students in the classroom; however, some pedagogical approaches work well with one group of students, but, are not operative with another class. Consequently the teacher’s approach plays a key role in the learning process in positive or negative ways.
In order to identify students’ weaknesses to improve them and create students’ appropriate targets the teacher uses Formative Assessment. S(he) provides targets that should be clear and specific, challenging and difficult, of course, suitable for students’ capabilities. Learning objectives should be measurable and clearly assessed. Teachers often face the common conflict between individual targets and ‘high –stakes’ official constraints.
Learning objectives are shared with students to support them know as well as recognize the criteria that they are pointing to. Afterwards it is indispensable to make available oral as well as written feedback which helps students to identify their following steps and how to take them. Students are encouraged to explain their thoughts and reasoning to improve their skills. Furthermore, students need available time in lessons to reflect on what they have learned and to identify possible difficulties.
High-quality assessment helps both teachers and students to understand what has been achieved and what must be done yet. Any assessment can only give a snapshot of what students have done, therefore, all kinds of assessment should be matched to the knowledge and competences of students.