2:191 & 193 – “And kill them wherever
you overtake them and expel them from wherever they have expelled you, and
fitnah is worse than killing. And do not fight them at al-Masjid al- Haram
until they fight you there. But if they fight you, then kill them. Such is the
recompense of the disbelievers.”, “Fight them until there is no more fitnah
and until worship is acknowledged to be for Allah . But if they cease, then
there is to be no aggression except against the oppressors.” 1
3:56 – “And as for those who disbelieved,
I will punish them with a severe punishment in this world and the Hereafter,
and they will have no helpers.2
9-29 – “Fight those who (do) not believe
in Allah and not in the Day the Last, and not they make unlawful what Allah has
made unlawful and His Messenger, and not they acknowledge (the) religion (of)
the truth, from those who were given the Scripture, until they pay the
willingly, while they (are) subdued.”3
2:190 – “Fight in God’s cause against those who fight you, but
do not overstep the limits: God does not love those who overstep the limits.”4
Quran 4:74 – “Hence, let them fight in God’s cause -all who are willing to barter the
life of this world for the life to come: for unto him who fights in God’s
cause, whether he be slain or be victorious, We shall in time grant a mighty
Quran 8:12 – “When your Lord revealed to the angels: I am with you, therefore make
firm those who believekm
. I will cast terror into the hearts of those who disbelieve. Therefore
strike off their heads and strike off every fingertip of them.”6
Sahih al-Bukhari, Volume 4, Book
52, Volume 177 – “Allah’s Apostle said,
“The Hour will not be established until you fight with the Jews, and the stone
behind which a Jew will be hiding will say. “O
Muslim! There is a Jew hiding behind me, so kill him.””7
Sahih al-Bukhari, Volume 4, Book
52, Volume 256 – ” The
Prophet passed by me at a place called Al-Abwa or Waddan, and was asked whether
it was permissible to attack the pagan warriors at night with the probability
of exposing their women and children to danger. The Prophet replied, “They
(i.e. women and children) are from them (i.e. pagans).” I also heard the
Prophet saying, “The institution of Hima is invalid except for Allah and
1 “Surah Al-Baqarah
2:191-193”. online. Available at: https://quran.com/2/191-193?translations=20. Accessed 30/11/17. This
is an English interpretation of quotes directly from the Noble Quran. Quran.com
is a website which was founded and created by Muslims, therefore this should
mean that this quote is reliable and source is valid because this shows Islam
in a negative light, yet these Muslim creators still include it. Whilst
attempting to cross reference this information, I have found many other
interpretations of the Quran which display a more defensive side to violence.
For example, one English interpretation if the Quran said that ‘And do not
fight them at al-Masjid al- Haram until they fight you there.’ There are two
contrasting views of this source, one which shows aggression and a will to
fight in the name of Allah whilst one portrays acts of only fighting when the
war was started by the opposition. Therefore, quotes from the Quran may not be
completely useful to provide a deeper understanding of whether Islam is a
religion of peace. On the other hand, this may provide us with two very
different sides of Islam, one of violence and one of peace. This could provide
a deeper understanding of the vastness of Islam and the different way people
interpret the holy text of Islam.
“Surah Ali ‘Imran 3:56. online. Available at: http://islamawakened.com/quran/3/56/default.htm,.
Accessed 30/11/17. This quote from the noble Quran is not as disputed as
other verses. Many scholars and Arabic interpreters have viewed this text in a similar way. This
website shows many different translations, all of which in summary have the
same meaning. Therefore, I believe this interpretation of the verse can be
thoroughly trusted because it has cross referenced it’s information with other
sources in the hope of producing a well informed document. Although, it is
possible that this website has purposely only shown interpretations of this
text in the hope of presenting a one sided argument. Although, through
extensive cross referencing by myself I have concluded that this verse has been
“at-Taubah 9:29”. online. Available at: http://islamawakened.com/quran/9/29/.
Accessed 30/11/17. IslamAwakened has also provided multiple translations of
the Arabic text which has been withdrawn from the Noble Quran. These
interpretations all show the same message, therefore I believe this site to be
a reliable source for all knowledge of the Quran.
2:190-194”. online. Berkeley Center. Available at: https://berkleycenter.georgetown.edu/quotes/qur-an-2-190-194.
Accessed 01/12/17. The Berkley Centre is a research centre from Georgetown
university, Washington, USA. It is dedicated to the study of Religion, Ethics
and Politics. Therefore, I have used this source in the hope of showing a
positive interpretation of the Quran so that my dissertation is unbiased.
Berkeley is a highly respected research centre, therefore this translation of
the Noble Quran should be trustworthy. Through research into other sites such
as quran.com, I have noticed that this interpretation is the same.
Consequently, I believe Berkley’s interpretation to be a reliable one.
4. An-Nisaa, Ayah 74”. online. Alim. Available at: http://www.alim.org/library/quran/ayah/compare/4/74/be-prepared-for-armed-conflict-(jihad).
Accessed 05/12/17. Alim.org is a website thats core is based around Islamic
principles and content, this includes multiple translations of the Hadith,
Quran and Tafsir. The website shows 5 translations of Surah 4, verse 74. All of
which share content. This means that this information is more reliable. Also,
the information shown is subjective as it is a pure translation from the Arabic
written in the Noble Quran by the Prophet Muhammad. Alim is a website dedicated
to providing correct translations to the Islamic passages. They have referenced
a Quran reference by Muhammad Asad, a Jewish born Muslim linguist, who has no
higher form of education as they dropped out of Vienna University. This may
suggest that Asad has no deeper understanding of the Quran and it’s English
translation. Although, as a Muslim himself we can gain a greater comprehension
of the general interpretation of the noble Quran.
M H. “Verse (8:12) – English Translation”. online. Corpus Quran. Available
Accessed 05/12/17. The information gained from the Corpus Quran is a direct
translation from the Quran, which is originally written in Arabic. Corpus Quran
is a linguistic resource which shows in detail the syntax and grammar of all
Arabic translations. Corpus Quran has collected 7 different translations of the
holy text, I have decided to use the
translation by Muhammad Habib Shakir, this is because Shakir was Sudans supreme
judge for four years and also dean of Alexandria Scholars. This makes him a
reliable source as this means that he has experience living inside of an
Islamic country. And therefore has a knowledge of the Arabic language that
foreigners may not comprehend. Although it is thought that it is possible that
the translation by Shakir was actually written by Mohammedali Habib Shakir, of
the house of Habib. The house of Habib was a wealthy Pakistani family, it founded
the Habib university. In regards to this, both possible interpreters lived for
the majority of their life in Muslim countries, this means that they would have
had a deep understanding of the Quran, and it shows that the quotation used can
“Sahih al-Bukhari”. online. Sahih-Bukhari. Available at: https://www.sahih-bukhari.com/Pages/Bukhari_4_52.php.
Accessed 07/12/17. Sahih-Bukhari is a website dedicated to providing English
translations of the originally Arabic Sahih-Bukhari. Although not an official
website, it is a website which contains translations of all of the Sahih
Bukhari. I have done cross referencing
into this same Volume and have found that other sites have the same
word-for-word translation of the Arabic text. This tells me as the author of
this dissertation that the text is reliable because it follows the vast
majority of translations.
for the Cause of Allah (Jihaad)”. online. TheReligionOfPeace. Available at: https://www.thereligionofpeace.com/quran/bukhari/052-sbt.htm.
Accessed 07/12/17. Religion of Peace is a right wing website that could
possibly provide a one sided opinion on the state of Islam, its core purpose is
to provide the public with a “real” view of the Islamic religion. Therefore, I
viewed it as potentially unreliable and consequently decided to cross reference
this information with information from https://muflihun.com/bukhari/52/256
, an Islamic website which provides multiple verses from Islamic literature.
Their translation was the same as The Religion of Peace, so I believe this
interpretation to be correct.